An uneasy integration

To facilitate the transition of power between the Spanish, the French and the Americans, and in order to liquidate the archives and the possessions of the Republic, Laussat remained in Louisiana until April 1804. The former colony now found itself in the hands of the American administrators Claiborne and Wilkinson. Boré, the sugar industrialist, became the first mayor of New Orleans.

Vinache,
Map of New Orleans; in the inset, the house of the Prefect Laussat
Historic New Orleans Collection The city of Saint Louis and Upper Louisiana were only transferred to the Americans on March 9, 1804. Starting in December 1803, the majority of the Legislative Council of Louisiana was English-speaking, even though the Creoles were in the majority in New Orleans until 1818. Even though their ways of life could not have been more opposite, the two societies—one frivolous and cultivated, the other puritanical, unsophisticated and hard-working—had to come together to maintain slavery. At the same time, the Restoration forced a number of Bonapartists into exile, and they took up residence in Marengo County north of Mobile (Demopolis and Aigleville) as well as in Texas (Champ d’Asile).
Vinache,
Map of New Orleans; in the inset, the house of the Prefect Laussat
Historic New Orleans Collection


Ecole française, Champs d'Asile, Musée de la coopération franco-américaine de Blérancourt, © RMN, R.G. Ojeda
Ecole française, Champs d'Asile, Musée de la coopération franco-américaine de Blérancourt,
© RMN, R.G. Ojeda

It was not until 1812 that Americans, Creoles and Acadians came together to defeat the English in the Battle of New Orleans.

Laclotte, The Battle of New Orleans
Alcée Fortier, A History of Louisiana, New Orleans, 1904.
BNF, Imprimés
Laclotte, The Battle of New Orleans
Alcée Fortier, A History of Louisiana, New Orleans, 1904.
BNF, Imprimés

The same year, Louisiana—now barely a twelfth of the size of its former colonial presence—became one of the States of the American Union. The Napoleonic Code was adopted, and French was taught in schools along with English. The town of Baton Rouge (today Beauregard Town), founded by a French engineer, Arsène Lacarrière-Latour, on the site of an old plantation, was annexed to the new state; it had formerly belonged to Spain.

the Louisiana Purchase