Spanish Creole Louisiana

The Spanish general O’Reilly landed in New Orleans in August 1769, with orders to finally take possession of the colony. He put down the revolt of the colonists and executed their leaders, then stepped aside for a real governor, Luis de Unzaga. The new governor attempted to make the French and Spanish inhabitants coexist, while at the same time respecting the use of the French language. He even took a French Creole wife, as did Galvez, who succeeded him in 1777. Unlike Unzaga, who had remained neutral in the Anglo-American conflict, Galvez took the side of the Americans. Spain declared war on English in 1779, and hundreds of French volunteers fought alongside the Spanish against the English, chasing them out of Natchez, Mobile and Pensacola and thus contributing to American independence.

The capture of Pensacola, May 1781
BNF, Estampes, Qf 1, t. 3
The capture of Pensacola, May 1781
BNF, Estampes, Qf 1, t. 3

French presence in Louisiana was strengthened with the mass immigration of the Acadians, and later of refugees from Santa Domingo, forced to flee by the slave revolt led by Toussaint Louverture. A colonist from Illinois, Etienne Boré, introduced the cultivation of sugar cane in 1795.

An indigo factory at Santa Domingo in the 18th century 
Diderot et D’Alembert (eds.), Encyclopedia
BNF, Estampes
An indigo factory at Santa Domingo in the 18th century
Diderot et D’Alembert (eds.), Encyclopedia
BNF, Estampes

The partial reconstruction that followed the great New Orleans fires of 1788 and 1794 (under governors Miró and Carondelet, respectively) helped to give the city the Franco-Spanish look that it still has today. The republican ideas of the United States and France were attractive to the city's very active intellectuals.

the transfer of Louisiana to Spain and England