The Chickasaw Indian wars
Dumont de Montigny, Bienville's attack on the Chicachas
BNF, Arsenal, fonds Paulmy, Ms. 3459, p. 146
Photo G.-A. Langlois The victory of the French in the war with the Natchez Indians did not result in real peace: the fragility of Franco-Indian relations was evident in a series of incidents of unrest, particularly along the Illinois River. In February 1736, Bienville was not surprised to learn that the Chickasaws were preparing for war, with the support of the surviving Natchez Indians. He quickly assembled two small armies, one consisting of 400 men, including 270 Illinois Indians, and the other of 500 men, of whom 50 were black slaves. The first, led by d’Artaguiette, left from the northern part of the colony, and the second, under the command of Bienville, left from Mobile. The two armies converged near the Chickasaw camps. D’Artaguiette, the first to arrive, was defeated and burned alive by the Indians; Bienville was forced to retreat, despite the help of the Choctaws, the traditional enemies of the Chickasaws.
Dumont de Montigny, Bienville's attack on the Chicachas
BNF, Arsenal, fonds Paulmy, Ms. 3459, p. 146
Photo G.-A. Langlois

It was only in 1739 that an army of 4,000 men (including 2,800 Indians and black slaves) marched into Chickasaw territory and established peace without resorting to war. In exchange, the last of the Natchez warriors were handed over. Ten years after the tragedy of the Natchez, the Chickasaw war signaled the end of a time of mostly peaceful coexistence—a time in which the French and the English fought each other by means of Indian intermediaries.

Bienville's army regroups at Fort Tombecbe
CAOM, Collection Moreau de Saint-Méry, F3 290/10
Bienville's army regroups at Fort Tombecbe
CAOM, Collection Moreau de Saint-Méry, F3 290/10